Lindau im Bodensee

Inseln sind Traumziele, Orte für >kleine Fluchten«. Von spiegelnden Wasserflächen umgeben, erscheinen sie als eine Welt für sich, abge-schirmt vom Treiben >da draußen«, selbstgenügsam und friedlich.
Lindau ist ein solcher Ort. Eher malerisch als wehrhaft wirkende Türme, hier und da Reste von Stadtmauern markieren die Ränder der Insel. Kirchtürme heben sich über die gleichmäßig bewegte Dachlandschaft hinaus. Ein Damm für die Eisenbahn und eine Brücke überqueren den 400 Meter breiten Wassergraben zwischen Insel und Festland. Der See ist hier ein Meer, doch die Berge sind ganz nahe, die des Allgäus und die des Bregenzerwalds.

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Ein wenig Geschichte
Könnte man Lindau vom Flugzeug aus betrachten, sähe man es als ein unregelmäßiges Oval, an dem man noch in etwa ablesen könnte, daß es einst aus drei verschieden großen Inseln bestand. Ein künstli¬cher Wehrgraben trennte in Höhe des Mangturms am Hafen in nord¬südlicher Richtung eine westliche, für Acker- und Weinbau genutzte Insel von der dicht bebauten Altstadt. Ein weiteres, einst mit einer Kirche bebautes Inselchen Auf Burg gab sein Inseldasein beim Bau des Hafens 1853-56 auf.
Will man Stadtentwicklung studieren, bietet sich Lindau als Ideal¬fall an. Mochte hier in Jahrhunderten gebaut, verändert, erweitert und abgerissen worden sein, der Stadtgrundriß aus der Gründungs¬zeit im 9. Jahrhundert blieb erhalten. Rund um die sehr alte Kirche St. Peter im Nordwesten wird es früh eine Fischersiedlung gegeben haben, doch Urzelle der Stadt wurde das um 800 gegründete Kano- nissenstift, das den Osten der Insel beherrschte. Zwischen diesen beiden Zentren wuchs planmäßig eine Stadtanlage mit drei annähernd parallelen Straßenzügen.
Aus Dank für Rettung aus Seenot soll Graf Adalbert von Rätien aus dem Geschlecht der Udalrichinger das frühe Benediktinerkloster ge¬gründet haben. Schon ab 839 war es mit den Privilegien Immunität, Münz-, Zoll- und Marktrecht ausgestattet und allein dem König unter¬stellt. Der Markt des Stifts lag ursprünglich in Aeschach auf dem Fest¬land. Seine Verlegung auf die Insel 1079 markierte die Anfänge der Stadt Lindau. Im 13. Jahrhundert wurde aus dem einstigen Fischerdorf eine Freie Reichsstadt, die durch Handel und Schiffahrt zu Wohlstand gelangte. Lindau war drittreichste Stadt Oberschwabens. Stift und Stadt waren von nun an zwei autonome Rechtspersönlichkeiten auf engstem Raum in permanentem Spannungsverhältnis und seit dem Übertritt der Stadt zur Reformation 1528 zusätzlich einander entfrem¬det. 1802 erführen Stadt und Stift das Ende der Reichsherrlichkeit und 1805 die Unterstellung unter bayerische Landesherrschaft. Mit dem Erwerb der Villa Amsee durch Prinzregent Luitpold begann 1848 eine neue Karriere Lindaus als Sommerresidenz der Wittelsbacher. Zahlrei¬che Aristokraten folgten dem königlichen Vorbild mit dem Bau von Villen, und diese Entwicklung leitete über zur heutigen Rolle Lindaus als Fremdenverkehrs- und Kongreßstadt. Seit 1950 tagen hier alljähr¬lich die Psychotherapeuten, seit 1951 die Nobelpreisträger.

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